Notes from conclusion

1. Malet, Foreign Fighters.

2. Sidney Tarrow, The New Transnational Activism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 124–128.

3. Ibid., p. 127.

4. Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War, rev. ed. (London: Penguin, 2001).

5. Thomas Hegghammer, ‘Syria’s Foreign Fighters’,, 9 December 2013.

6. Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998).

7. Idean Salehyan, Rebels without Borders: Transnational Insurgencies in World Politics (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009).

8. Haroro J. Ingram, The Charismatic Leadership Phenomenon in Radical and Militant Islamism (London: Routledge, 2014), Kindle version, chapter 9.

9. Dale F. Eickelman and James P. Piscatori, Muslim Politics (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004), pp. 131 ff.

10. [No reference].

11. Thomas Hegghammer and Joas Wagemakers, ‘The Palestine Effect: The Role of Palestinians in the Transnational Jihad Movement’, Die Welt des Islams 53, no. 3–4 (2013): 281–314; Hazim al-Amin, al-salafi alyatim: al-wajh al-filistini li’l-jihad al-‘alami wa’l-qa‘ida [The Orphaned Salafi: The Palestinian Dimension of Global Jihad and al-Qaida] (Beirut: Dar al-Saqi, 2011).

12. Thomas Hegghammer, ‘Should I Stay or Should I Go? Explaining Variation in Western Jihadists’ Choice between Domestic and Foreign Fighting’, American Political Science Review 107, no. 1 (2013): 1–15.

13. Bearden and Risen, The Main Enemy, p. 366.