Notes from chapter 10

1. Azzam, ‘ibar wa basa’ir, p. 51.

2. Ibid., pp. 68 ff.

3. al-Jihad no. 20 (July 1986), p. 13.

4. ‘kalimat al-shaykh ‘abdallah ‘azzam’ [The Words of Sheikh Abdallah Azzam], in mawsu‘at al-dhakha’ir, vol. 4, p. 1100.

5. ‘ila fadilat al-shaykh abu bakr al-jaza’iri’ [To his Excellency Sheikh Abu Bakr al-Jaza’iri], 9 June 1989, in mawsu‘at al-dhakha’ir, vol. 2, pp. 358–359.

6. Mawsu‘at al-dhakha’ir, vol. 1, pp. 789–793; ibid., vol. 2, pp. 337–340, 333–336. Al-as’ila wa’l-ajwiba al-jihadiyya [Jihadi Questions and Answers] (Minbar al-Tawhid wa’l-Jihad, n.d.).

7. Azzam, al-as’ila wa’l-ajwiba, pp. 5–23.

8. Author’s telephone interview with Jamal Khashoggi, 14 September 2018.

9. Author’s interview with Atiq-u-Zafar, Islamabad, 20 March 2008.

10. fi ‘uyun mu‘asira, p. 85.

11. Author’s interview with Abu Suhayb, Jenin, 4 May 2008; Badi, afghanistan: ihtilal al-dhakira, p. 197; fi ‘uyun mu‘asira, p. 197.

12. Author’s telephone interview with Jamal Khashoggi, 14 September 2018.

13. Badi, afghanistan: ihtilal al-dhakira, p. 197.

14. Abu Rumman and Sa‘id, al-‘alim, p. 84.

15. fi ‘uyun mu‘asira, pp. 98 and 101.

16. Author’s interview with Hudhayfa Azzam, Amman, 11 September 2006.

17. Author’s interview with Jamal Isma‘il, Islamabad, 18 March 2008.

18. Author’s interview with Hasan Abu Hanieh, Amman, 6 November 2015.

19. Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, p. 53.

20. Author’s interview with Fayiz Azzam, al-Sila al-Harithiyya, 4 May 2008.

21. Author’s interview with Abu Harith, Amman, 8 May 2008.

22. Miller, The Audacious Ascetic, p. 86.

23. Shiraz Maher, ‘The Future of Unholy War’, Standpoint Magazine, November 2008.

24. Cooley, Unholy Wars, p. 87.

25. Azzam, The Lofty Mountain, p. 48; Azzam, ‘ya muslimiy al-‘alam: intabahu’, p. 27.

26. Azzam, The Lofty Mountain, p. 48.

27. Jarrar, al-shahid, pp. 97–98.

28. Author’s interview with Isam al-Attar, Aachen, 16 December 2009.

29. Author’s telephone interview with Jamal Khashoggi, 14 September 2018.

30. Author’s interview with Hudhayfa Azzam, Amman, 11 September 2006.

31. Azzam, al-duktur al-shahid, pp. 161–162.

32. USA v Usama bin Laden et al., Southern District of New York, 2001, day 5 (14 February 2001), p. 544.

33. Author’s interview with Hudhayfa Azzam, Amman, 11 September 2006.

34. Jarrar, al-shahid, pp. 340 and 342.

35. Author’s interview with Hudhayfa Azzam, Amman, 11 September 2006; author’s interview with Hasan Abu Hanieh, Amman, 6 November 2015.

36. Bergen, The Osama Bin Laden I Know, p. 31.

37. Azzam, ‘ibar wa basa’ir, p. 51.

38. Abdallah Azzam, ‘mu’tamar al-talaba fi britaniya’ [Student Conference in Britain], in mawsu‘at al-dhakha’ir, vol. 3, pp. 879–887.

39. fi ‘uyun mu‘asira, p. 283.

40. Ibid., p. 45.

41. al-Jihad no. 39 (February 1988), pp. 40–41.

42. Zak Ebrahim, The Terrorist’s Son: A Story of Choice (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014), p. 31.

43. Steven Emerson, ‘The Suspect Ties of CAIR Officials, Fundraisers and Trainers’ (The Investigative Project, 2008), p. 8.

44. J. M. Berger, ed., Beatings and Bureaucracy: The Founding Memos of Al Qaeda (Intelwire Press, 2012), Kindle version, location 764.

45. mawsu‘at al-dhakha’ir, vol. 3, pp. 906–922; ibid., vol. 2, p. 199. ‘Neutrality Matter – Afghanistan’, FBI Dallas Office, 10 October 1989 (obtained through FOIA request).

46. Salah, waqa’i‘ sanawat al-jihad, p. 157.

47. ‘From Kabul to al-Quds’, video file in author’s possession.

48. Jarrar, al-shahid, pp. 97–98; Muhammad, al-ansar, p. 34.

49. Azzam, al-duktur al-shahid, p. 136.

50. al-Mujtama‘, no. 944, in Amir, al-shaykh al-mujahid, pp. 89–100.

51. fi ‘uyun mu‘asira, p. 236.

52. Abdallah Azzam, ‘jihad wa hajat al-umma ‘alayhi’ [Jihad and the Umma’s Need for it], video file in author’s possession.

53. Abdallah Azzam, The Ruling on Meat Slaughtered in the West, translation of 2nd ed. (Minbar al-Tawhid wa’l-Jihad, 1989), pp. 4 and 6. Abdallah Azzam, ‘muhadara fi almania’ [Lecture in Germany], in mawsu‘at al-dhakha’ir, vol. 3, pp. 989–994. Jarrar, al-shahid, p. 99. Author’s interview with Isam al-Attar, Aachen, 16 December 2009.

54. Fi ‘uyun mu‘asira, p. 265. Author’s interview with Basim Ghozlan, Oslo, 30 October 2018.

55. ‘al-jihad fi afghanistan’ [Jihad in Afghanistan], video file in author’s possession.

56. fi ‘uyun mu‘asira, p. 85.

57. Azzam, al-duktur al-shahid, p. 92.

58. al-Qandahari, dhikrayat, p. 241.

59. al-Bunyan al-Marsus no. 30 (February 1990), p. 7.

60. Fred W. Lindecke, ‘5,000 Muslim Students Spending Holidays at St. Louis Convention’, St. Louis Post, 25 December 1983.

61. Jarrar, al-shahid, pp. 340 and 342.

62. Azzam, ‘muhadara fi almania’; see also Azzam, al-duktur al-shahid, p. 259.

63. Azzam, ‘muhadara fi almania’, p. 994.

64. Nico Prucha, ‘Abdallah Azzam’s Outlook for Jihad in 1988 – “al-Jihad between Kabul and Jerusalem”’ (Research Institute for European and American Studies, 2010), p. 5.

65. Abu Bakr al-Zayla‘i, ‘Verily, I am the Naked Warner’ (al-Haqa’iq Media, 1 May 2013), p. 4.

66. ‘Interview with Sheikh al-Mujahideen Abu Abdel Aziz’, al-Sirat al-Mustaqeem no. 33 (1994).

67. Ebrahim, The Terrorist’s Son, pp. 31–32.

68. Miniter, Mastermind, pp. 68–69.

69. Sean O’Neill and Daniel McGrory, The Suicide Factory: Abu Hamza and the Finsbury Park Mosque (London: HarperCollins, 2006), pp. 14–15.

70. Azzam, The Lofty Mountain, p. 53.

71. Ibid. ‘Qissat hayat al-mujahid alshaykh tamim muhammad al-‘adnani’ [The Story of the Life of the Mujahid Shaykh Tamim al-Adnani], al-Jihad no. 62 (December 1989): 24–34. ‘Al-shaykh tamim al-‘adnani yatahaddath li’l-jihad’ [Sheikh Tamim al-Adnani Speaks to al-Jihad], al-Jihad no. 32 (July 1987): 35–39.

72. Azzam, The Lofty Mountain, pp. 24 ff.

73. Ibid., pp. 22, 24–25, and 28.

74. Ibid., p. 21.

75. Ibid., p. 74.

76. Ibid., p. 39.

77. Ibid., pp. 73–74.

78. Ibid., p. 40.

79. Ibid., pp. 40–41.

80. Ibid., p. 41.

81. ‘Interview with Sheikh Tameem al Adnani’.

82. Tamim al-Adnani’s speaking schedule in the United States and Canada, December 1988. I am grateful to Brian Fishman for sharing this document.

83. Azzam, The Lofty Mountain, pp. 50 ff.

84. Ibid., pp. 52–53.

85. Ibid., p. 54.

86. Wright, The Looming Tower, p. 97. Salah, waqa’i‘ sanawat al-jihad, pp. 80–82. Khalid Khalil As‘ad, muqatil min makka: al-qissa al-kamila li-usama bin ladin [Warrior from Mecca: The Complete Story of Usama bin Ladin] (London: al-I‘lam li’l-Nashr, 2000), pp. 29–30.

87. Muhammad, al-ansar, p. 85.

88. Ibid., p. 227.

89. [no reference].

90. Huda Al-Salih, ‘How al-Qaeda was Born in a Tiny Office in New York’, al-Arabiya English, 14 October 2016. Steven Emerson, American Jihad: The Terrorists Living among us (New York: Free Press, 2002), pp. 21–22.

91. Benjamin Weiser, Susan Sachs, and David Kocieniewski, ‘US Sees Brooklyn Link to World Terror Network’, New York Times, 22 October 1998.

92. Abdallah Azzam, ‘du‘a wa thana’ [Supplication and Tribute], al-Jihad no. 39 (February 1988): 40–41.

93. Al-Kifah fundraising poster (Investigative Project website).

94. Steven Emerson, ‘Inside the Osama Bin Laden Investigation’, Journal of Counterterrorism and Security International 5, no. 3(1998): 16–26.

95. Berger, Jihad Joe, p. 11.

96. Abottabad document PDF-023412, p. 3.

97. Alison Mitchell, ‘After Blast, New Interest in Holy-War Recruits in Brooklyn’, New York Times, 11 April 1993.

98. 9/11 Commission Report, p. 58.

99. Bergen, The Osama Bin Laden I Know, p. 33.

100. al-Jihad no. 47 (October 1988), p. 3.

101. Berger, Jihad Joe, p. 8.

102. Ronald Sandee, America’s First al-Qa’ida Fighters (New York: NEFA Foundation, April 2010).

103. Cooley, Unholy Wars, p. 202.

104. Documents pertaining to case titled ‘Abdula Azzam; Motez (LNU); *REDACTED*; Neutrality matter – Afghanistan; 00: Dallas’, Federal Bureau of Investigation, March–November 1989. The FOIA request was submitted by this author in 2008.

105. Petter Nesser, Islamist Terrorism in Europe: A History (London: Hurst, 2015).

106. Lorenzo Vidino, The New Muslim Brotherhood in the West (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010), p. 166.

107. Steve A. Johnson, ‘Political Activity of Muslims in America’, in The Muslims of America, ed. Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), pp. 111–124, p. 121. Alyssa A. Lappen, ‘The Muslim Brotherhood in North America’, in The Muslim Brotherhood: The Organization and Policies of a Global Islamist Movement, ed. Barry Rubin (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), 161–180.

108. Johnson, ‘Political Activity of Muslims’, p. 122.

109. Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, p. 70; Anas and Hussain, To the Mountains, p. 225.

110. al-Qandahari, dhikrayat, p. 44.

111. fi ‘uyun mu‘asira, p. 101.

112. Salah, waqa’i‘ sanawat al-jihad, pp. 71–72; Caryle Murphy and Steve Coll, ‘The Making of an Islamic Symbol: US Spotlight has Elevated Radical Sheik’s Status in Muslim World’, Washington Post, 9 July 1993.

113. Khaled al-Berry, Life is More Beautiful than Paradise: A Jihadist’s Own Story (Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2009), p. 115.

114. Ibid., p. 27.

115. Salah, waqa’i‘ sanawat al-jihad, pp. 80–82.

116. Mokeddem, Les Afghans algériens, p. 13.

117. As‘ad, muqatil min makka, p. 32.

118. Strick van Linschoten and Kuehn, An Enemy we Created, p. 52.

119. Author’s telephone interview with Alastair Crooke, 23 March 2008.

120. [Background data for estimates – TBC]

121. Davis, ‘Foreign Combatants in Afghanistan’, p. 330.

122. Anas, wiladat, p. 61.

123. Muhammad, al-ansar, p. 206; Davis, ‘Foreign Combatants in Afghanistan’; Edwards, Before Taliban, p. 270.

124. Bergen, The Osama Bin Laden I Know, pp. 41–42. James Bruce, ‘Arab Veterans of the Afghan War’, Jane’s Intelligence Review 7, no. 1 (1995): 178–180. Davis, ‘Foreign Combatants in Afghanistan’.

125. Al-Bunyan al-Marsus 26 (March 1986), pp. 48–51.

126. Thomas Hegghammer, ‘Terrorist Recruitment and Radicalisation in Saudi Arabia’, Middle East Policy 13, no. 4 (2006): 39–60.

127. Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, pp. 73–74.

128. Ferzede Kaya, ‘Turks who Fought in Afghanistan’, Turkish Daily News, 17 October 2001.

129. Author’s interview with Isam al-Attar, Aachen, 16 December 2009.

130. Notin, La Guerre de l’ombre, p. 299.

131. Muhammad, al-ansar, p. 145.

132. fi ‘uyun mu‘asira, p. 477.

133. Seidelin, Allahs danske krigere, epub paragraphs 11.1–16.

134. ‘Abu ‘Ubayda al-Banshiri’ (Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, 2008).

135. Abigail Hauslohner, ‘Friend of Zawahiri: The Tangled Tale of the Mild-Mannered Salafi’, Time, 11 July 2011.